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Helping communities end homelessness

2021 learnings from the Built for Zero movement to end homelessness
April 12, 2022

Built for Zero is now a movement of 98 U.S. regions committed to measurably and equitably ending homelessness. More than 70 million people live in these communities — about a fifth of the U.S. population. Together, their leaders are building a new reality, where homelessness is rare, and brief if it ever occurs.

Our aim

Our aim

Our goal is to marshal enough proof to create a tipping point across the country. By 2026, at least 50 U.S. communities will have reached “functional zero” homelessness for 75 populations, including veterans, youth, families, single adults, and people experiencing long-lasting or recurring homelessness. Five of these communities will have ended homelessness outright, for everyone. 

Fremont County, Colorado, has achieved functional zero for veteran homelessness. By reaching this milestone, they have created a reality where fewer veterans are experiencing homelessness than can be routinely housed — ensuring veteran homelessness is rare and brief.


  1. Crater Region, Virginia, and Fremont County, Colorado, reached functional zero for veteran homelessness. 
  2. Bakersfield and Kern County, California, announced functional zero for chronic homelessness. 
  3. 63 U.S. communities had comprehensive, real-time, person-specific data for at least one population.

Defining an end to homelessness is the first step to making it solvable. We cannot end homelessness without a clear, measurable way to track success. The Built for Zero movement works toward an end state where homelessness is measurably rare and brief, with equally strong outcomes for everyone, regardless of race and ethnicity. And because who is experiencing homelessness changes every day, functional zero ensures we can track whether homelessness remains at zero over time.

Functional zero adopts principles used by other fields to mark an end to dynamic, public health challenges. For example, when the World Health Organization declared an end to the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic, countries had driven cases down to zero and sustained zero over time. However, the declaration did not mean there would be no more infections or outbreaks. Making zero stick requires ongoing vigilance and investments in preventing, detecting, and quickly responding to new cases.

Functional zero looks at how many people are experiencing homelessness at any given time. This number is drawn from a community’s database of every person experiencing homelessness, which is updated monthly.

The second number calculated is a community’s functional zero “threshold,” which is how many people experiencing homelessness can be housed by a community each month. This number is based on a six-month average of how many people exit homelessness into housing every month.

Communities reach functional zero by driving their actively homeless numbers below this threshold, and staying below it. The standard can be thought of as a net-zero equilibrium, where there are never more people coming into homelessness than can quickly exit it. This means homelessness is rare, and the community is never overwhelmed by the scale of homelessness, even as new people may face housing crises. Instead, the local housing system can quickly detect and resolve any incidences of homelessness as they occur.

William is a veteran who was housed in Fremont County, Colorado, a community that's reached functional zero.
William is a veteran who was housed in Fremont County, Colorado, a community that’s reached functional zero.


1. A shared aim, and a system to support achieving it, were the leading reasons communities reached zero. 

In every city and county, there is an array of public agencies and not-for-profit organizations working with those experiencing homelessness. We refer to this as the homeless response system. While these groups are often dedicated to providing excellent services for those they touch, they are not necessarily working together or with the goal of reducing overall homelessness across their region. 

Individual organizations can’t get a city or county to zero homelessness on their own, but by working together, a consolidated team can. Communities like Fremont County, Colorado, are proving it.

DeeDee Clement realized that her county did not really have a system at all. She knew that many looked to her organization, Loaves and Fishes, for leadership on homelessness. And her team did their best, operating an emergency shelter and several housing programs for those who walked through their doors. But they were not organized to end homelessness for everyone in the county.

“Homelessness no longer lies on the shoulders of Loaves and Fishes alone, and it doesn’t end at an emergency shelter that provides for basic needs. It became a community problem.”

Jennifer Jones

“It felt as if homelessness was Loaves and Fishes’ problem to solve, and we weren’t solving it,” she said. “I didn’t know what to do.”

In November 2019, she and eight other leaders from Fremont County, Colorado, attended a convening of Built for Zero communities from across the country. As she listened to how cities and counties were building systems to reduce homelessness, she saw the path to zero emerge.

Just a few weeks later, she hosted a town hall, where she announced that Fremont County was going to end veteran homelessness. But Loaves and Fishes couldn’t do it alone — Clement said that they needed others to join the effort. 

Bethany La Loge, who worked for a local mental health and social service agency, was struck by the sense of what was possible.

 “As someone on the outside, it hit me like a brick wall,” La Loge said. 

La Loge, and many other local organizations, agencies, and volunteers decided to join the local team. And they began to transform their collective efforts into a coordinated system. 

An immediate challenge they faced was that there were no paid staff to conduct outreach to those living in unsheltered settings. La Loge and her organization, Starpoint, took the lead on coordinating a volunteer-fueled street outreach team, which included 20 regular volunteers and 30 more on rotation. With guidance from the community’s Built for Zero coach, they developed the first systematic way of conducting comprehensive outreach across their entire region. With a regular line of sight across the entire county, the team identified new veterans experiencing homelessness and added them to their by-name list.

This list became a full, up-to-date picture of veteran homelessness in Fremont County that everyone on the extended team could trust. Built for Zero coaches helped them turn that information into a source for action through a weekly meeting, known as case conferencing. Every week, the local team came together to discuss what each veteran needed to move into housing. When the team realized that one barrier was the lack of a paid staff member to quickly navigate housing options and help veterans move into housing, the local Housing Authority stepped up to create a position to fill that role.

The community came together to deliver what Clement had promised. In February 2021, Fremont County reached functional zero veteran homelessness. Though veterans may experience homelessness in the future, the community now has a system in place for continuously monitoring and quickly resolving any new housing emergencies faced by veterans to assure the experience would always be rare and brief.

“Homelessness no longer lies on the shoulders of Loaves and Fishes alone, and it doesn’t end at an emergency shelter that provides for basic needs,” said Jennifer Jones, the Coordinated Entry System Program Manager. “It became a community problem.”

Functional zero for veteran homelessness is achieved when there are fewer veterans experiencing homelessness than can be routinely housed in a month.

For example, Fremont County can routinely house three veterans in a month. Reaching and maintaining functional zero means no more than three veterans would be in need of housing at any given time, ensuring veteran homelessness is rare and brief.

In February of 2021, Crater Region reached functional zero for veteran homelessness, demonstrating that there are fewer veterans experiencing homelessness than can be routinely housed within a month, with a minimum threshold of three veterans.
In February of 2021, Crater Region reached functional zero for veteran homelessness, demonstrating that there are fewer veterans experiencing homelessness than can be routinely housed within a month, with a minimum threshold of three veterans.


2. Covid-19 posed incredible challenges and also increased the urgency to end homelessness.

In the words of one local Built for Zero leader, 2021 was both the best and worst time to work in homelessness. 

Covid-19 placed people experiencing homelessness at even greater risk. Yet, an influx of new state and federal emergency Covid-19 resources offered a once-in-a-generation opportunity to put a massive dent in the problem. This included dedicated resources to help people shelter in hotels, pay their rent, and avoid eviction.

Despite the availability of these resources, communities throughout the country struggled to apply these funds quickly and strategically. We saw the impact of having coordinated local teams with comprehensive, real-time data in the Built for Zero communities that were prepared to direct new funding to accelerate progress toward zero homelessness.

When Crater Region, Virginia, joined Built for Zero local leaders encouraged organizations working separately to join one team. Together they created a single list of every veteran experiencing homelessness in the community and a system for updating it each month. Every Wednesday, the team gathered on a call to develop a plan for housing every veteran on their list. 

“We knew where to find people. And we were able to connect them to rapid rehousing and diversion to get them into housing.” 

erica holmes

“To be on the same page and providing the same information to the community was our first challenge,” said Erica Holmes, Director of Program Operations at St. Joseph’s Villa. “It was a lot of work, but we were able to do it.”

When Covid-19 hit, the challenges multiplied with the transition to remote operations and staffing shortages. But the infusion of emergency federal resources was an opportunity they were ready to seize. 

“Since 2017, we have struggled with not having consistent shelter to provide and follow-up,” Holmes said. “The CARES Act allowed us to provide motel and hotel shelter for people, and we were then able to have that direct contact with them to problem-solve and secure permanent housing.”

The systems they had built — knowing every veteran by name, having all the right people at the table and a well coordinated housing process — allowed them to use the new funds to reach zero veteran homelessness. 

 “We knew where to find people,” Holmes said, “And we were able to connect them to rapid rehousing and diversion to get them into housing.” 

Rapid rehousing is a solution created to quickly end a person’s homelessness by offering permanent housing without preconditions like income, employment, or sobriety. 

Diversion is an approach designed to prevent someone from experiencing homelessness by finding immediate and safe alternative housing options.

Chronic homelessness is long-lasting or recurring homelessness. It is defined by the federal government as impacting people who have experienced homelessness for at least a year, or repeatedly over three years, and live with a disability.

Functional zero for chronic homelessness is achieved when there are fewer than 3 people experiencing chronic homelessness at any given time (or .1% of the total number of individuals reported in the most recent point-in-time count, whichever is greater.

The point-in-time count, or PIT count, is an annual count of homelessness mandated by the Department of Housing and Urban Development for communities that receive federal funding. To collect point-in-time count data, volunteers hit the streets and count the number of people they see experiencing unsheltered homelessness. Traditional efforts to end homelessness have relied on this annual census, but communities are now working to maintain the real-time, person-specific data needed to end homelessness.

Bakersfield, Kern County Built for Zero team
Bakersfield, California, is one of the cities that has ended chronic homelessness.


3. Sustaining functional zero is difficult, critical, and possible. 

An end to homelessness is not a one-time finish line. It’s a new standard that must be sustained. 

Bakersfield and Kern County, California, reached functional zero for chronic homelessness in March 2020 and have maintained it since.

Those who experience chronic, or long-lasting, homelessness are at three to four times greater risk of dying prematurely than the general population and face significant barriers to housing. When Bakersfield and Kern County first set out to end chronic homelessness, more than 200 people needed to be housed.

As of 2020, just three Built for Zero communities had achieved this goal. Bakersfield and Kern County faced a larger chronic population than any of them. 

“No one thought it was attainable at the beginning.”

Heather Kimmel 

“No one thought it was attainable at the beginning,” said Heather Kimmel, Assistant Executive Director at the Housing Authority. 

This did not deter them. The team brought the key not-for-profit and government organizations together to create a single by-name list, and shifted their approach from each organization serving “my clients” to one community-wide group serving “our clients.” They adopted the spirit of constant improvement, essential for solving complex problems like homelessness. They overcame fear of failure by testing new ideas in short cycles, trying some that did not deliver results, moving quickly to test other strategies, and continually refining their approach until they reached functional zero for chronic homelessness.

“You didn’t want to put your name to something that you didn’t think would be successful,” Kimmel said. “And it took us six months to get over the fear. But we eventually got to the mindset that if we succeed, great. If we don’t, we’ll just do something a little different.” 

In March 2020, the community first reached functional zero — and the strength of their system was tested almost immediately. The pandemic began, and chronic homelessness also began to rise. But the team continued to employ the same data-driven problem solving and soon drove those numbers back down.

For Bakersfield and Kern County, achieving functional zero wasn’t a fleeting achievement. It was the start of a new normal. Throughout 2021, the number of people experiencing chronic homelessness never exceeded three, even getting all the way down to zero.

“We didn’t ever let the immediate result become the end of the road,” said Dr. Anna Laven, Executive Director of the Bakersfield-Kern Regional Homeless Collaborative.

Bakersfield, CA, run chart

Organizational Learning

Sustaining functional zero is a distinct challenge. With support from the MacArthur Foundation’s 100&Change grant, we are supporting communities in learning what it takes to sustain functional zero over time, including conducting annual data reviews to confirm that the standard has been maintained.

Functional zero timeline

14 communities have achieved functional zero for at least one population


Abilene, TX

Veteran (Nov. 2018) and chronic homelessness (Jan. 2020)

Bergen County, NJ

Veteran (Aug. 2016) and chronic homelessness (April 2017)

Fremont County, Colorado

Fremont County, CO

Veteran homelessness (Feb. 2021)

Gulf Coast Region, MS

Veteran homelessness (Sep. 2015)

Norman, Oklahoma

Norman, Cleveland County, OK

Veteran homelessness (Jan. 2017)

Arlington VA

Arlington County, VA

Veteran homelessness (Dec. 2015)

Crater Region, VA

Veteran homelessness (Feb. 2021)

Lancaster PA

Lancaster City & County, PA

Chronic homelessness (March 2017)

Lake County

Lake County, IL

Veteran homelessness (Dec. 2018)

Fast Company

Rockford, Winnebago & Boone Counties, IL

Veteran (Dec. 2015) and chronic homelessness (Jan. 2017)

Bakersfield reached functional zero for chronic homelessness

Bakersfield, Kern County, CA

Chronic homelessness (March 2020)


Chattanooga, TN

Veteran homelessness (Oct. 2019)

Montgomery County, Maryland

Montgomery County, MD

Veteran homelessness (Dec. 2015)

Lynchburg Region, VA

Veteran homelessness (Feb. 2020)

Proof point communities

Fourteen communities in Built for Zero have achieved functional zero. Altogether, six million people live in communities that have ended homelessness for at least one population. 

These communities are geographically diverse and include rural and suburban communities, as well as small and midsize cities. 

Large cities are making measurable progress toward functional zero. Community Solutions further refined its strategy to help large cities reach functional zero. By the end of 2021, 22 large cities were participating in Built for Zero, including 20 of the 50 largest cities by population in the country. Six of these large cities drove measurable reductions in homelessness in 2021.

Functional zero communities pie chart
Functional zero communityPopulation (2019 est.)
Montgomery County, Maryland1,026,000
Bergen County, New Jersey930,000
Bakersfield and Kern County, California871,000
Lake County, Illinois729,000
Chattanooga and Southeast Tennessee680,000
Lancaster City and County, Pennsylvania533,000
Gulf Coast, Mississippi482,000
Rockford and Winnebago, Boone Counties, Illinois343,000
Lynchburg Region, Virginia258,000
Arlington County, Virginia226,000
Norman andCleveland County, Oklahoma200,000
Crater Region, Virginia177,000
Abilene, Texas124,000
Fremont County, Colorado49,000
Grand Total6.6 million

*Populations have been rounded to the nearest thousand.

This article was published as part of the 2021 Impact & Learning Report.